Topical Products - Sea Buckthorn Oil


  1. Poljsak N et al (2020). Vegetable butters and oils in skin wound healing: Scientific evidence for new opportunities in dermatology, 34: 254-269. Phytother Res.

    Summary: Phytotherapy in dermatology has been proven that therapies using vegetable butters or oils are effective, with few side effects. The fatty acids of triglycerides are assumed to play an important role in the skin wound healing process, whereas the compounds of unsaponifiable matter may significantly contribute to antimicrobial, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. Sea buckthorn seed oil mainly consists of alpha-linolenic fatty acid (38%), along with linoleic (36%), oleic (13%) and palmitic (7%) acids in a significant amount of carotenoids. A study of the effects of Sea buckthorn oil on an animal model showed an acceleration of the healing process. Additional research will provide us important knowledge of the effects of vegetable oils and their use for wound healing and they seem to support by sound scientific rationale.

    Abstract: The use of vegetable butters and oils shows promising results in the treatment of skin wounds, as they have an effective impact on the phases of the wound-healing process through their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities and by promoting cell proliferation, increasing collagen synthesis, stimulating dermal reconstruction, and repairing the skin's lipid barrier function. In this article, in vitro and in vivo studies of argan (Argania spinosa), avocado (Persea americana), black cumin (Nigella sativa), calophyllum (Calophyllum inophyllum), coconut (Cocos nucifera), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), grape (Vitis vinifera), green coffee (Coffea arabica), lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus), linseed (Linum usitatissimum), lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), mango (Mangifera indica), olive (Olea europaea), pomegranate (Punica granatum), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), rapeseed (Brassica napus), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oils were reviewed. In many cases, vegetable oils proved to be more effective than synthetic wound-healing compounds used as controls. The fatty-acid components of vegetable oils are assumed to play a major role in the wound-healing process, in particular polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. Evidence shows that oils with a higher linoleic to oleic acid ratio are more effective for lipid barrier repair. However, in depth studies are needed to gain knowledge about vegetable oils' effects on the skin and vice versa.

  1. Balkrishna A et al (2019). Cytokines Driven Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Psoriasis Like Efficacies of Nutraceutical Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) Oil, 10: 1186+. Front Pharmacol.

    Summary: This study provided scientific evidence that sea buckthorn oil obtained from the pulp of the its berries can be used as a therapeutic agent in subduing systemic inflammations and psoriasis-like lesions. Presence of high levels of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids along with other biomolecules in the oil significantly increases its value as a nutraceutical. In addition, the presence of high levels of clinically relevant lipids provides the opportunity to further explore its commercial and pharmaceutical applications.

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by circumscribed, red, thickened plaques with overlying silvery white scales. It is associated with the release of pro-inflammatory mediators that lead to the development of edema and distress. Here we show the anti-inflammatory and anti-psoriatic efficacies of a neutraceutical sea buckthorn oil (SBKT) derived from the fruit pulp of Hippophae rhamnoides. Chemical analysis of the SBKT showed the presence of 16 major saturated, mono-, and polyunsaturated fatty acids components, imparting significant nutritional values. Efficacy of the SBKT in modulating psoriasis and associated inflammation was first tested in vitro using human monocytic (THP-1) cells. SBKT induced cytotoxicity at a dose of ≥25 µl/ml. Treatment of the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells with SBKT subdued the enhanced release of intracellular reactive nitrogen species and expression of NF-κB protein, in a concentration-dependent manner. This was accompanied by a reduction in the release of downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interleukin-1ß and interleukin-6. Tumor necrosis factor-α released in the stimulated THP-1 cells were also inhibited by SBKT dose of 5 µl/ml. In vivo oral and topical treatment with SBKT in the Carrageenan-stimulated paw edema model, showed a significant decrease in paw volume and edema. In the 12-O tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) stimulated CD-1 mice psoriasis-like model, concurrent oral and tropical SBKT treatments substantially reduced ear edema and ear biopsy weights. Histopathologically, significant reduction in ear epidermal thickness and skin lesion scores was observed in the SBKT-treated animals. In conclusion, SBKT showed anti-inflammatory and anti-psoriasis-like efficacies in healing chemical-induced inflammation and psoriasis. The possible mode of action of SBKT was found through inhibition of reactive nitrogen species, and downregulation of NF-κB protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, the present data suggest that Sea buckthorn oil can be used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-psoriatic nutraceutical.

  1. Smida I et al (2019). Benefits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) pulp oil-based mouthwash on oral health, 126: 1594-1605. J Appl Microbiol.

    Summary: The study concludes that sea buckthorn mouthwash, experimentally developed for the first time, appears to have bactericidal effect against some periodontal pathogens with the ability to inhibit single- and multi-strain biofilms formation. Besides, the antioxidant effect and the very low cytotoxicity could allow the long-term use of this mouthwash without inducing changes in the oral ecosystem. Further studies are necessary to determine its clinical efficacy and potential to be included in daily home care products.

    Abstract: Aim: The purpose of this study was to conduct phytochemical analysis of sea buckthorn pulp oil and to evaluate the antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and antioxidant activities of its mouthwash form.

    Methods and results: Fatty acid composition of the sea buckthorn pulp oil was determined by GC-MS analysis, which revealed that, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, palmitoleic acid and saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, were the major constituents. The antimicrobial and the anti-biofilm capacities of sea buckthorn pulp oil mouthwash form were evaluated against Streptococcus gordonii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinomyces viscosus and Candida albicans, according to the European Norms, and the Biofilm Ring Test® , respectively. These activities were then compared with those of chlorhexidine and herbal mouthwashes. The sea buckthorn-based mouthwash was bactericidal against S. gordonii and P. gingivalis, bacteriostatic against A. viscosus and showed no antifungal effect. Regardless of the strains used, complete inhibition of biofilm formation was achieved. The antioxidant activity of this experimental mouthwash was also assessed by DPPH and NBT assays.

    Conclusion: Sea buckthorn mouthwash showed anti-biofilm activities against select single and multiple oral bacterial species.

    Significance and impact of the study: In this study, a mouthwash derived from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) pulp oil has been experimented, for the first time, in order to overcome the problem of a large number of available synthetic mouthwashes which have side effects on teeth, gums and mucous membranes. This mouthwash seemed to be a suitable alternative for a preventive agent for periodontal inflammation.

  1. Marsinach MS, Cuenca AP (2019). The impact of sea buckthorn oil fatty acids on human health, 18: 145-155. Lipids Health Dis.

    Summary: Sea buckthorn oil, very rich in fatty acids, could play an important role in several activities related to human health. Palmitoleic acid has an evident clinical application on skin and mucous disorders such as vaginal inflammatory atrophy, skin hyper pigmentation or wounds, infections. In addition, other different positive effects in hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and liver dysfunction are demonstrated. The oleic acid has a well-founded indication in the protection of cardiovascular diseases. Although -linolenic acid is known to reduce cardiovascular risk, it is also useful in dry eye and health bone. The omega-6 fatty acids (GLA and LA) may have clinical applications in skin disorders. LA is beneficial in psoriasis and GLA in acne skin, atopic dermatitis and dry eye. In addition, LA seems to improve atherosclerosis condition. Large amount of experimental data evidencing those fatty acids could influence in a large range of activities in human health being a possible candidate for several clinical application. It is possible to conclude the oil is a promising product due to its diversity of fatty acids and its unique composition of omega-7 fatty acids group and these fatty acids have a strong relation with human health. Although these studies allow for extrapolating the effects of the isolated fatty acids in sea buckthorn oil, they limit the possible synergic effect between the fatty acids or with other compounds present in the oil.

    Abstract: The beneficial properties of fatty acids have been undervalued for several years. In contraposition, new studies reveal that fatty acids have an essential role for human health. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the clinical applications of fatty acids present in sea buckthorn oil. The composition of fatty acids found in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) oil is unique for this species, presenting a vast range of health benefits for humans and therefore it is highly valued by both biomedicine and the cosmetic industry. In this way, we will see the clinical effect of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids that constitute sea buckthorn oil and how they contribute to the correct function of the organism. Despite there being studies that support the positive effects of sea buckthorn fatty acids, they are limited. Hence, most of the results obtained in this review are from studies of isolated fatty acids instead of fatty acids extracted from sea buckthorn oil. These facts permit to demonstrate the effect of sea buckthorn fatty acids separately, but we lost the possibility of detecting a synergic effect of all of them. More studies are necessary to certify the clinical application of the fatty acids present in sea buckthorn oil as well as discovering possible synergies between them.

  1. Khan BA, Akhtar N (2014). Hippophae rhamnoides oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion improves barrier function in healthy human subjects, 27: 1919-1922. Pak J Pharm Sci.

    Summary: The use of emulsions which are topically applied and contain plant botanicals that influence the skin’s biological function has increased in recent years. Moisturizers are used to keep the moisture of the skin in balance and protect it against external consequences. From this study, it was concluded that the quantitatively measured values of hydration level of the stratum corneum and transepidermal water loss following long term treatment with Hippophae rhamnoides containing emulsion leads one to conclude the results are promising enough and future studies are necessary to evaluate these formulations in situations with compromise skin barrier clinically.

    Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the changes in skin barrier function in human subjects, following long-term topical application of Hippophae rhamnoides oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion whereas effects were measred using non-invasive probes like tewameter and corneometer. For this purpose, two stable oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were formulated one with 5% Hippophae rhamnoides extract and other without extracts. Thirteen healthy, male subjects with a mean age 27 ± 4.8 years were enrolled after their informed consents. The subjects were instructed to apply either the active formulation or the base formulation over 84 days while they were not known with the contents of either formulation. Biometrological measurements of skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were performed on both sides of the face in each volunteer at baseline and on day 07, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84. The statistical analysis revealed formulation with 5% plant extract was superior compared to placebo (base formulation) as formulation with extract have shown extremely significant improvements in skin hydration (p=0.0003) and TEWL (p=0.0087) throughout treatment course. Moreover, a significant (p<0.05) data-preserve-html-node="true" correlation between the active formulation and the improvement of the skin barrier functions was observed. The active formulation found to be superior to that of placebo. Results affirmed that future studies are necessary to clinically evaluate the active formulation hence it can be proposed that Hippophae rhamnoides emulsion could be an alternative pharmacological tool in treating barrier compromised conditions of skin.

  1. Upadhyay NK et al (2009). Safety and healing efficacy of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil on burn wounds in rats, 47: 1146-1153. Food Chem Toxicol.

    Summary: The present study suggests that supercritical CO2-extracted sea buckthorn seed oil has significant wound healing activity in full-thickness burn wounds and found to be safe for use. The wound healing potential of sea buckthorn seed oil might be due to presence of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, tocopherols and carotenoids.

    Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to determine the safety and efficacy of supercritical CO2-extracted Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Sea buckthorn) (SBT) seed oil on burn wound model. SBT seed oil was co-administered by two routes at a dose of 2.5 ml/kg body weight (p.o.) and 200 μl (topical) for 7 days on experimental burn wounds in rats. The SBT seed oil augmented the wound healing process as indicated by significant increase in wound contraction, hydroxyproline, hexosamine, DNA and total protein contents in comparison to control and reference control treated with silver sulfadiazine (SS) ointment. Histopathological findings further confirmed the healing potential of SBT seed oil. SBT seed oil treatment up-regulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and 9), collagen type-III and VEGF in granulation tissue. It was observed that SBT seed oil also possesses antioxidant properties as evidenced by significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) level and reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wound granulation tissue. In acute and sub-acute oral toxicity studies, no adverse effects were observed in any of the groups administered with SBT seed oil. These results suggest that the supercritical CO2-extracted Sea buckthorn seed oil possesses significant wound healing activity and have no associated toxicity or side effects.

  1. Hsu Y-W et al (2009). Protective effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, 47: 2281-2288. Food Chem Toxicol.

    Summary: This is the first study to demonstrate that treatment of sea buckthorn (SBT) oil were effective in prevention of CCl4-induced hepatic damage in ICR mice. The results show the hepatoprotective effects of SBT oil could be attributed to contain several constituents with potentially healthy biological properties, such as unsaturated fatty, alpha-tocopherol, and beta-carotene.

    Abstract: The present study examined the protective effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., SBT) seed oil on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatic damage in male ICR mice. Our results showed that oral administration of SBT seed oil at doses of 0.26, 1.30, and 2.60 mg/kg for 8 weeks significantly reduced the elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol at least 13% in serum, and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver at least 22%, that was induced by CCl(4) (1 mL/kg) in mice. Moreover, the treatment of SBT seed oil was also found to significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSH-Rd), and GSH content in liver up to 134%. Our study found that the optimal dose of SBT seed oil was 0.26 mg/kg, as the minimum amount exhibiting the greatest hepatoprotective effects on CCl(4)-induced liver injury. Overall, the hepatoprotective effect of SBT seed oil at all tested doses was found to be comparable to that of silymarin (200 mg/kg) and have been supported by the evaluation of the liver histopathology in mice.

  1. Geetha S et al (2008). Hepatoprotective effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats, 88: 1592-1597. J Sci Food Agric.

    Summary: The results of the present study clearly indicate that leaf extract of sea buckthorn oil has significant hepatoprotective activity and can be developed as a nutraceutical or food supplement against liver diseases.

    Abstract: Background: Liver injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride are the best‐characterized system of xenobiotic‐induced hepatotoxicity and commonly used model for the screening of hepatoprotective activities of drugs. The present study evaluates the hepatoprotective activity of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), family Elaeagnaceae, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)‐induced liver injury in male albino rats. The study was performed on Sprague–Dawley male albino rats weighing about 180–200 g. The animals were pretreated with three different doses of leaf extract (50, 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight) for 5 days. Hepatotoxicity was induced by single oral administration of 1.5 mL CCl4 kg−1 body weight on the fifth day. The animals were then sacrificed and assessed for various biochemical parameters.

    Results: Administration of CCl4 significantly enhanced glutamate oxaloacetate transferase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transferase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and decreased total protein levels in the serum. Treatment with CCl4 also significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH), and decreased glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity. CCl4 treatment also caused a significant increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation as assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the tissue. Pretreatment of leaf extract at a concentration of 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight significantly (P < 0.05) protected the animals from CCl4‐induced liver injury. The extract significantly restricted the CCl4‐induced increase of GOT, GPT, ALP and bilirubin and better maintained protein levels in the serum. Further, it also enhanced GSH and decreased MDA levels.

    Conclusion: The results show that sea buckthorn leaf extract has significant hepatoprotective effects which might be due to its antioxidant activity and can be developed as a nutraceutical or food supplement against liver diseases.

  1. Alam Z (2004). Important Therapeutic Uses of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae): A Review, 4: 687-693. J Biol Sci.

    Summary: It is possible to conclude that sea buckthorn is a promising plant containing many dietary as well as medicinal compounds with a potential beneficial role in human health.

    Abstract: Sea buckthorn is a deciduous species, widely distributed all over the world, including Pakistan. It contains different kinds of nutrients and bioactive substances such as vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, free amino acids and elemental components etc. These components vary substantially among populations, origins or subspecies, however their presence is more important for the health of individual. The clinical trials and scientific studies during the 20th century confirm medicinal and nutritional value of sea buckthorn. The present study describes some areas of research that have been important points, for example in cancer therapy, cardiovascular diseases, treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers, skin disorder and as a liver protective agent. A lot of research work is still needed to clarify the mechanism of curing these conditions in molecular and cellular levels.