Topical Products - Hemp Oil
VanDolah HJ et al (2019). Clinicians’ Guide to Cannabidiol and Hemp Oils, 94: 1840-1851, Mayo Clin Proc.
Summary: Hemp and CBD oils has a potential role for treating chronic pain. The article summarizes the scientific work, distinction of components of CBD and hemp oil and their legal status in the USA.
Abstract: Cannabidiol (CBD) oils are low tetrahydrocannabinol products derived from Cannabis sativa that have become very popular over the past few years. Patients report relief for a variety of conditions, particularly pain, without the intoxicating adverse effects of medical marijuana. In June 2018, the first CBD-based drug, Epidiolex, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of rare, severe epilepsy, further putting the spotlight on CBD and hemp oils. There is a growing body of preclinical and clinical evidence to support use of CBD oils for many conditions, suggesting its potential role as another option for treating challenging chronic pain or opioid addiction. Care must be taken when directing patients toward CBD products because there is little regulation, and studies have found inaccurate labeling of CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol quantities. This article provides an overview of the scientific work on cannabinoids, CBD, and hemp oil and the distinction between marijuana, hemp, and the different components of CBD and hemp oil products. We summarize the current legal status of CBD and hemp oils in the United States and provide a guide to identifying higher-quality products so that clinicians can advise their patients on the safest and most evidence-based formulations. This review is based on a PubMed search using the terms CBD, cannabidiol, hemp oil, and medical marijuana. Articles were screened for relevance, and those with the most up-to-date information were selected for inclusion.
Lavie-Ajayi M, Shvartzman P (2019). Restored Self: A Phenomenological Study of Pain Relief by Cannabis, 20:2086-2093, Pain Med.
Summary: This study corroborates existing qualitative literature that found the use of medical cannabis alleviated chronic pain with fewer negative side effects of other pain medication while producing an increase of sense of control with increased relaxation and improved function and sleep.
Abstract: Objective: To explore the subjective experience of pain relief by cannabis. Design: Qualitative data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews. Interview transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Subjects: Nineteen patients, aged 28 to 79, who were treated with medical cannabis under the supervision of a pain clinic in Israel. Results: Three key themes that emerged from the analysis were explored: 1) the Sigh of Relief, describing the corporal sensation of using cannabis, including a sense of relaxation and reduction in pain; 2) the Return to Normality, describing the comprehensive effect of using cannabis, including an increased ability to sleep, focus, and function; and 3) the Side Effects of using cannabis. Conclusions: We propose the term Restored Self to conceptualize the effect of medical cannabis. Restored Self is the experience of regaining one's sense of self, sense of normality, and sense of control over one's life.
Sangiovanni E et al (2019). Cannabis sativa L. extract and cannabidiol inhibit in vitro mediators of skin inflammation and wound injury, 33: 2083-2093. Phytother Res.
Summary: This study examined the effect of cannabidiol on the inflammatory pathway in the skin. The extract inhibited the release of the inflammation agents and allowing the wound to heal with less inflammation.
Abstract: Skin inflammatory diseases result from complex events that include dysregulation and abnormal expression of inflammatory mediators or their receptors in skin cells. The present study investigates the potential effect of a Cannabis sativa L. ethanolic extract standardized in cannabidiol as antiinflammatory agent in the skin, unraveling the molecular mechanisms in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The extract inhibited the release of mediators of inflammation involved in wound healing and inflammatory processes occurring in the skin. The mode of action involved the impairment of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway since the extract counteracted the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced NF-κB-driven transcription in both skin cell lines. Cannabis extract and cannabidiol showed different effects on the release of interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor, which are both mediators whose genes are dependent on NF-κB. The effect of cannabidiol on the NF-κB pathway and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) release paralleled the effect of the extract thus making cannabidiol the major contributor to the effect observed. Down-regulation of genes involved in wound healing and skin inflammation was at least in part due to the presence of cannabidiol. Our findings provide new insights into the potential effect of Cannabis extracts against inflammation-based skin diseases.
Baron EP (2018). Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain: An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science, 58: 1139-1186. Headache.
Summary: Evidence suggests that there are various therapeutic benefits of cannabis/cannabinoids, especially in the treatment of pain, which may include migraines and headaches. The individual components of hemp have strong anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. There is also supporting evidence that cannabis may help in opioid detoxification and weaning, thus making it a potential tool in battling the opioid epidemic.
Abstract: Background: Comprehensive literature reviews of historical perspectives and evidence supporting cannabis/cannabinoids in the treatment of pain, including migraine and headache, with associated neurobiological mechanisms of pain modulation have been well described. Most of the existing literature reports on the cannabinoids Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), or cannabis in general. There are many cannabis strains that vary widely in the composition of cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds. These components work synergistically to produce wide variations in benefits, side effects, and strain characteristics. Knowledge of the individual medicinal properties of the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids is necessary to cross-breed strains to obtain optimal standardized synergistic compositions. This will enable targeting individual symptoms and/or diseases, including migraine, headache, and pain.
Objective: Review the medical literature for the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in the treatment of migraine, headache, facial pain, and other chronic pain syndromes, and for supporting evidence of a potential role in combatting the opioid epidemic. Review the medical literature involving major and minor cannabinoids, primary and secondary terpenes, and flavonoids that underlie the synergistic entourage effects of cannabis. Summarize the individual medicinal benefits of these substances, including analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.
Conclusion: There is accumulating evidence for various therapeutic benefits of cannabis/cannabinoids, especially in the treatment of pain, which may also apply to the treatment of migraine and headache. There is also supporting evidence that cannabis may assist in opioid detoxification and weaning, thus making it a potential weapon in battling the opioid epidemic. Cannabis science is a rapidly evolving medical sector and industry with increasingly regulated production standards. Further research is anticipated to optimize breeding of strain-specific synergistic ratios of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other phytochemicals for predictable user effects, characteristics, and improved symptom and disease-targeted therapies.
Jin S, Lee M-Y (2018). The ameliorative effect of hemp seed hexane extracts on the Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation and lipogenesis in sebocytes, 13: e0202933. PLoS One.
Summary: The results demonstrate the underlying mechanism of anti-inflammation and anti-lipogenesis in sebocytes by hemp seed hexane extracts (HSHE), and a treatment for the improvement of acne lesions. HSHE seems to be a superior treatment for acne, overcoming the limitation of antibiotic resistance and retinoids, and the risk of side effects. This study confirmed the promising anti-acne activity of HSHE and that it could be utilized conventionally for the development of safe and effective anti-acne agents.
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-lipogenic effects of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed hexane extracts, focusing on the Propionibacterium acnes-triggered inflammation and lipogenesis. Hemp seed hexane extracts (HSHE) showed anti-microbial activity against P. acnes. The expression of iNOS, COX-2, and the subsequent production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin increased after infection of P. acnes in HaCaT cells, however, upon treating with HSHE, their expressions were reduced. P. acnes-induced expressions of IL-1β and IL-8 were also reduced. HSHE exerted anti-inflammatory effects by regulating NF-κB and MAPKs signaling and blunting the translocation of p-NF-κB to the nucleus in P. acnes-stimulated HaCaT cells. Moreover, P. acnes-induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK, and their downstream targets c-Fos and c-Jun, was also inhibited by HSHE. In addition, the transactivation of AP-1 induced by P. acnes infection was also downregulated by HSHE. Notably, HSHE regulated inflammation and lipid biosynthesis via regulating AMPK and AKT/FoxO1 signaling in IGF-1-induced inflammation and lipogenesis of sebocytes. In addition, HSHE inhibited 5-lipoxygenase level and P. acnes-induced MMP-9 activity, and promoted collagen biosynthesis in vitro. Thus, HSHE could be utilized to treat acne vulgaris, through its anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-lipogenic, and collagen-promoting properties.
Lee G et al (2018). Review: Medical Cannabis for Neuropathic Pain, 22: 8. Curr Pain Headache Rep.
Summary: Controlled trials conducted over the last two decades have demonstrated efficacy of medical cannabis comparable to current therapies for the treatment of neuropathic pain including painful diabetic neuropathy. These data is limited by small sample sizes and studies of short duration, but appears to support the safety and tolerability of cannabis vaporization and oral mucosal delivery.
Abstract: Purpose of review: Many cultures throughout history have used cannabis to treat a variety of painful ailments. Neuropathic pain is a complicated condition that is challenging to treat with our current medications. Recent scientific discovery has elucidated the intricate role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. As societal perceptions change, and legislation on medical cannabis relaxes, there is growing interest in the use of medical cannabis for neuropathic pain.
Recent findings: We examined current basic scientific research and data from recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating medical cannabis for the treatment of neuropathic pain. These studies involved patients with diverse etiologies of neuropathic pain and included medical cannabis with different THC concentrations and routes of administration. Multiple RCTs demonstrated efficacy of medical cannabis for treating neuropathic pain, with number needed to treat (NNT) values similar to current pharmacotherapies. Although limited by small sample sizes and short duration of study, the evidence appears to support the safety and efficacy of short-term, low-dose cannabis vaporization and oral mucosal delivery for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The results suggest medical cannabis may be as tolerable and effective as current neuropathic agents; however, more studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of medical cannabis use. Furthermore, continued research to optimize dosing, cannabinoid ratios, and alternate routes of administration may help to refine the therapeutic role of medical cannabis for neuropathic pain.
Miller RJ, Miller RE (2017). Review: Is cannabis an effective treatment for joint pain? Suppl 107; 59-67. Clin Exp Rheumatol.
Summary: Preclinical data clearly demonstrates that the different elements of the endocannabinoid signaling system are expressed in the appropriate tissues in humans and animals and that cannabinoids do produce beneficial effects in animal models of joint pain. However, while rigorous clinical evidence is limited, because a number of trials have produced positive results, additional studies need to be conducted.
Abstract: Cannabis has been used to treat pain for thousands of years. However, since the early part of the 20th century, laws restricting cannabis use have limited its evaluation using modern scientific criteria. Over the last decade, the situation has started to change because of the increased availability of cannabis in the United States for either medical or recreational purposes, making it important to provide the public with accurate information as to the effectiveness of the drug for joint pain among other indications. The major psychotropic component of cannabis is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of some 120 naturally occurring phytocannabinoids. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another molecule found in herbal cannabis in large amounts. Although CBD does not produce psychotropic effects, it has been shown to produce a variety of pharmacological effects. Hence, the overall effects of herbal cannabis represent the collective activity of THC, CBD and a number of minor components. The action of THC is mediated by two major G-protein coupled receptors, cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and CB2, and recent work has suggested that other targets may also exist. Arachidonic acid derived endocannabinoids are the normal physiological activators of the two cannabinoid receptors. Natural phytocannabinoids and synthetic derivatives have produced clear activity in a variety of models of joint pain in animals. These effects are the result of both inhibition of pain pathway signalling (mostly CB1) and anti-inflammatory effects (mostly CB2). There are also numerous anecdotal reports of the effectiveness of smoking cannabis for joint pain. Indeed, it is the largest medical request for the use of the drug. However, these reports generally do not extend to regulated clinical trials for rheumatic diseases. Nevertheless, the preclinical and human data that do exist indicate that the use of cannabis should be taken seriously as a potential treatment of joint pain.
Kaur R et al (2016). Endocannabinoid System: A Multi-Facet Therapeutic Target, 11: 110-117. Curr Clin Pharmacol.
Summary: The endocannabinoid system has been shown in a number of trials to show some success in treating a number of conditions. They have been shown to serve a positive role and because of this, additional studies need to be conducted.
Abstract: Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It has been cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes since many centuries. Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries. The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and downs in the recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids have role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve "protective role" in many medical conditions. Several diseases like emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, anorexia, epilepsy, glaucoma, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, metabolic syndrome related diseases, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Tourette's syndrome could possibly be treated by drugs modulating endocannabinoid system. Presently, cannabinoid receptor agonists like nabilone and dronabinol are used for reducing the chemotherapy induced vomiting. Sativex (cannabidiol and THC combination) is approved in the UK, Spain and New Zealand to treat spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. In US it is under investigation for cancer pain, another drug Epidiolex (cannabidiol) is also under investigation in US for childhood seizures [FDA approved]. Rimonabant, CB1 receptor antagonist appeared as a promising anti-obesity drug during clinical trials but it also exhibited remarkable psychiatric side effect profile. Due to which the US Food and Drug Administration did not approve Rimonabant in US. It sale was also suspended across the EU in 2008. Recent discontinuation of clinical trial related to FAAH inhibitor due to occurrence of serious adverse events in the participating subjects could be discouraging for the research fraternity. Despite some mishaps in clinical trials related to drugs acting on endocannabinoid system, still lot of research is being carried out to explore and establish the therapeutic targets for both cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists. One challenge is to develop drugs that target only cannabinoid receptors in a particular tissue and another is to invent drugs that act selectively on cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. Besides this, development of the suitable dosage forms with maximum efficacy and minimum adverse effects is also warranted. Another angle to be introspected for therapeutic abilities of this group of drugs is non-CB1 and non-CB2 receptor targets for cannabinoids. In order to successfully exploit the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid system, it is imperative to further characterize the endocannabinoid system in terms of identification of the exact cellular location of cannabinoid receptors and their role as "protective" and "disease inducing substance", time-dependent changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors.
Russo EB (2016). Review: Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System, 37:594-605. Trends in Pharmacol Sci..
Summary: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a homeostatic regulator of neurotransmitter activity and almost every other physiological system in the body. They perform major regulatory homeostatic functions in the brain, skin, digestive tract, liver, cardiovascular system, genitourinary function, and even bone. Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency underlies many human maladies producing pain and psychiatric disturbances. Recently, numerous other agents beyond cannabis have been examined for their possible modulatory effects on the ECS. Of interest to us is Piper nigrum (black pepper), Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), and Boswellia carterii (Frankincense).
Abstract: Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis, whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system. These Include common foodstuffs, herbs, spices, and more exotic ingredients: kava, chocolate, black pepper, and many others that are examined in this review..
Sharma C et al (2015). Small Molecules from Nature Targeting G-Protein Coupled Cannabinoid Receptors: Potential Leads for Drug discovery and Development, 2015: 1-26. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.
Summary: The potential of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in a wide range of disorders has been demonstrated; therefore, it is reasonable to speculate that the nature derived small molecules modulating cannabinoid receptors demonstrate therapeutic efficacy and elucidate underlying potential mechanism of therapeutic benefits by cannabinoids. Additionally, lack of toxicity along with additional anxiolytic activity which appears with synthetic CB1 receptor antagonists, the phytocannabinoids, can potentially be promising for future armamentarium of the cannabinoid-based therapeutics. Medicinal plants are based on the evidences of cannabimimetic activity of many plants could be promoted as these could indirectly exert immunomodulatory, nonpsychoactive, and anti-inflammatory action.
Abstract: The cannabinoid molecules are derived from Cannabis sativa plant which acts on the cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) which have been explored as potential therapeutic targets for drug discovery and development. Currently, there are numerous cannabinoid based synthetic drugs used in clinical practice like the popular ones such as nabilone, dronabinol, and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol mediates its action throughCB1/CB2 receptors. However, these synthetic based Cannabis derived compounds are known to exert adverse psychiatric effect and have also been exploited for drug abuse. This encourages us to find out an alternative and safe drug with the least psychiatric adverse effects. In recent years, many phytocannabinoids have been isolated from plants other than Cannabis. Several studies have shown that these phytocannabinoids show affinity, potency, selectivity, and efficacy towards cannabinoid receptors and inhibit endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes, thus reducing hyperactivity of endocannabinoid systems. Also, these naturally derived molecules possess the least adverse effects opposed to the synthetically derived cannabinoids. Therefore, the plant-based cannabinoid molecules proved to be promising and emerging therapeutic alternative. The present review provides an overview of therapeutic potential of ligands and plants modulating cannabinoid receptors that may be of interest to pharmaceutical industry in search of new and safer drug discovery and development for future therapeutics.
Russo EB (2008). Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain, 4(1):245-59. Ther Clin Risk Manag.
Summary: Cannabinoids may offer significant “side benefits” beyond analgesia. These include anti-emetic effects, well established with THC, but additionally demonstrated for CBD. The ability of THC and CBD to produce apoptosis in malignant cells and inhibit cancer-induced angiogenesis, as well as the neuroprotective antioxidant properties of the two substances, and improvements in symptomatic insomnia need to be recognized. The degree to which cannabinoid analgesics will be adopted into adjunctive pain management practices currently remains to be determined.
Abstract: This article reviews recent research on cannabinoid analgesia via the endocannabinoid system and non-receptor mechanisms, as well as randomized clinical trials employing cannabinoids in pain treatment. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol((R))) and nabilone (Cesamet((R))) are currently approved in the United States and other countries, but not for pain indications. Other synthetic cannabinoids, such as ajulemic acid, are in development. Crude herbal cannabis remains illegal in most jurisdictions but is also under investigation. Sativex((R)), a cannabis derived oromucosal spray containing equal proportions of THC (partial CB(1) receptor agonist ) and cannabidiol (CBD, a non-euphoriant, anti-inflammatory analgesic with CB(1) receptor antagonist and endocannabinoid modulating effects) was approved in Canada in 2005 for treatment of central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and in 2007 for intractable cancer pain. Numerous randomized clinical trials have demonstrated safety and efficacy for Sativex in central and peripheral neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer pain. An Investigational New Drug application to conduct advanced clinical trials for cancer pain was approved by the US FDA in January 2006. Cannabinoid analgesics have generally been well tolerated in clinical trials with acceptable adverse event profiles. Their adjunctive addition to the pharmacological armamentarium for treatment of pain shows great promise.