Topical Products - Black Pepper Oil


  1. Han X et al (2018). Black pepper (Piper nigrum) essential oil demonstrates tissue remodeling and metabolism modulating potential in human cells, 32: 1848-1852. Phytother Res.

    Summary: This study saw evidence of biological activity of black pepper oil to positively modulate the biological process involved in tissue remodeling, wound healing and metabolism.

    Abstract: Very few studies have investigated the biological activities of black pepper essential oil (BPEO) in human cells. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the biological activities of BPEO in cytokine-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts by analyzing the levels of 17 important protein biomarkers pertinent to inflammation and tissue remodeling. BPEO exhibited significant antiproliferative activity in these skin cells and significantly inhibited the production of Collagen I, Collagen III, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. In addition, we studied the effect of BPEO on the regulation of genome-wide expression and found that BPEO diversely modulated global gene expression. Further analysis showed that BPEO affected many important genes and signaling pathways closely related to metabolism, inflammation, tissue remodeling, and cancer signaling. This study is the first to provide evidence of the biological activities of BPEO in human dermal fibroblasts. The data suggest that BPEO possesses promising potential to modulate the biological processes of tissue remodeling, wound healing, and metabolism. Although further research is required, BPEO appears to be a good therapeutic candidate for a variety of health conditions including wound care and metabolic diseases. Research into the biological and pharmacological mechanisms of action of BPEO and its major active constituents is recommended.

  1. Russo EB (2016). Review: Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System, 37:594-605. Trends in Pharmacol Sci.

    Summary: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a homeostatic regulator of neurotransmitter activity and almost every other physiological system in the body. They perform major regulatory homeostatic functions in the brain, skin, digestive tract, liver, cardiovascular system, genitourinary function, and even bone. Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency underlies many human maladies producing pain and psychiatric disturbances. Recently, numerous other agents beyond cannabis have been examined for their possible modulatory effects on the ECS. Of interest to us is Piper nigrum (black pepper), Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), and Boswellia carterii (Frankincense).

    Abstract: Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis, whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system. These Include common foodstuffs, herbs, spices, and more exotic ingredients: kava, chocolate, black pepper, and many others that are examined in this review.

  1. Butt MS et al (2013). Black pepper and health claims: a comprehensive treatise, 53: 875-886. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.

    Summary: Black pepper, owing to functional ingredients like piperine, oleoresins, and essential oil, is helpful in regulating gastrointestinal functionality. It is also helpful in mediating inflammation. Black pepper can provide neuroprotection thus defending the body from depression and Alzheimer’s. The synergistic effect of black pepper in enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients and drugs is of considerable importance. Overall, the nutraceutical perspective of black pepper is of key importance for health care consultants. Additional efforts are also required to assess its proper utilization.

    Abstract: For millennia, spices have been an integral part of human diets and commerce. Recently, the widespread recognition of diet-health linkages bolsters their dietary importance. The bioactive components present in them are of considerable significance owing to their therapeutic potential against various ailments. They provide physiological benefits or prevent chronic ailment in addition to the fundamental nutrition and often included in the category of functional foods. Black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.) is an important healthy food owing to its antioxidant, antimicrobial potential and gastro-protective modules. Black pepper, with piperine as an active ingredient, holds rich phytochemistry that also includes volatile oil, oleoresins, and alkaloids. More recently, cell-culture studies and animal modeling predicted the role of black pepper against number of maladies. The free-radical scavenging activity of black pepper and its active ingredients might be helpful in chemoprevention and controlling progression of tumor growth. Additionally, the key alkaloid components of Piper Nigrum, that is, piperine assist in cognitive brain functioning, boost nutrient's absorption and improve gastrointestinal functionality. In this comprehensive treatise, efforts are made to elucidate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, gastro-protective, and antidepressant activities of black pepper. Moreover, the synergistic interaction of black pepper with different drugs and nutrients is the limelight of the manuscript. However, the aforementioned health-promoting benefits associated with black pepper are proven in animal modeling. Thus, there is a need to conduct controlled randomized trials in human subjects, cohort studies, and meta-analyses. Such future studies would be helpful in recommending its application in diet-based regimens to prevent various ailments.

  1. Meghwal M, Goswami TK (2013). Piper nigrum and piperine: an update, 27: 1121-1130. Phythther Res.

    Summary: Pepper, a rich source of numerous biologically active constituents having various health beneficial uses, has been found to have many potential therapeutic applications such as immunomodulator, stimulant, hepattoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-amoebic, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-fertility, anti-ulcer, antifungal, antibacterial, antihyperlipidemic, and anti-asthmatic. It has also been found to have enhanced bioavailability of food, drug, anti-carcinogen, and phytochemical as well as to promote influences on drug-metabolizing enzymes. It biotransforms the metabolite and reduces food movement and absorption time and helps lipid metabolism acceleration and lipid peroxidation. Modern science has shown the molecular basis for the pharmacological properties of black pepper against human diseases, and some clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of pepper in human subjects.

    Abstract: Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a very widely used spice, known for its pungent constituent piperine. However, in addition to its culinary uses, pepper has important medicinal and preservative properties, and, more recently, piperine has been shown to have fundamental effects on p-glycoprotein and many enzyme systems, leading to biotransformative effects including chemoprevention, detoxification, and enhancement of the absorption and bioavailability of herbal and conventional drugs. Based on modern cell, animal, and human studies, piperine has been found to have immunomodulatory, anti-oxidant, anti-asthmatic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and anti-amoebic properties. In this review, the chemical constituents, biological activities, effects of processing, and future potential of black pepper and piperine have been discussed thoroughly.